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Title: The Revolution of 1848
Other Titles: La Révolution de 1848
Authors: Mesnard, Eric
Keywords: MIH
digital module
módulo digital
Issue Date: 2011
Publisher: UPEC - University of East Paris Créteil - IUFM
Abstract: At the beginning of the year 1848, Louis-Philippe of Orleans (1773-1850) was the king of France. He was crowned after the Revolution of 1830. At first, inspired by the ideals of the Revolution, the king was seen as a personification of hope for the monarchy but soon the July Monarchy (1830-1848) faced numerous demonstrations which were roughly suppressed (the Canut revolts in Lyon in 1831, uprisings in Paris in 1832 and in Lyon in 1834). The republican Opposition got organized gathering support stemming from the social discontent. The conservative direction of the July Monarchy became more pronounced from 1848: Guizot, who was the secretary-general of Louis-Philippe the First, answered the requests concerning the expansion of the equal suffrage and the demands of the poorest in the following fashion: “Get richer by working and by saving money”. From 1846, the economic crisis (the rise of bread price, food shortage, unemployment) strengthened the unpopular regime. As political meetings were forbidden, Republicans organized, all over France, banquets to claim their main demand: the universal suffrage. On 22 February, 1848, a planned banquet was forbidden. This provoked demonstrations during which the troops shot at the crowd. This was the beginning of the French Revolution of 1848. A provisional government stood at the head of the republic proclaimed on 24 February, 1848. It decided to hold an election of the constitutional assembly through Universal Male Suffrage. In huge euphoria, the freedom of the press and assembly, the right to work, the abolition of death penalty for political offences and the abolition of slavery in colonies were proclaimed. The number of political clubs and associations increased in cities, also in Paris. They discussed prospects of a democratic and social republic; some women asserted their equal rights. However, the hopes for a democratic republic emerging from the French Revolution of 1848 fquickly faded: During elections on 23 April, the “Party of Order”, which gathered moderate and monarchist republicans, won thanks to rural votes. National workshops were closed on 22 June. This led to a murderous confrontation between the troops and the French people who held barricades on the 23 and 26 June. On 10 December 1848, Louis-Napoleon Bonaparte’s success in the presidential election confirmed the victory of those who wanted to put an end to the “48’s spirit”…
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