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Title: Urbanization in Europe in the 19th Century
Other Titles: Urbanisierung in Europa im 19. Jahrhundert
Authors: Kortler, Lena
Keywords: MIH
digital module
módulo digital
Issue Date: 2011
Publisher: UNA - University of Augsburg
Abstract: Big, contiguous congested areas developed along with growing industrial cities. The century witnessed a rapid growth of an enormous number of factories, especially in heavy industry and textile industry. In order to produce as much as possible and to obtain as high sales of goods as possible, workers were needed in the factories. They often came from countryside to town, in hope of achieving a proper standard of living by working. The factories could assuredly nourish the population surplus, yet the worker had to in a way subject himself to the machine. The hard working day in the companies left hardly any space for the free development of workers. Moreover, the factory owners did not provide them with any care or protection. They did not have any protective clothing, breaks or holidays. At the beginning of industrialization, there was no coverage against illness or worker participation in the works council. Only over the years, did trade unions and work insurance develop. In order to distribute goods, a well-developed infrastructure with a comprehensive railway network as well as connections to sea ports was of high importance. The mobility within the cities was increased with the introduction of cable cars. In order to guarantee transport services even beyond city boundaries, large cities and congested areas were first linked to the railway network. Thus, the time needed for the transportation of goods was shortened and the market for the produced goods was extended.
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